## Introduction

If you’re involved in finance, you’ve likely come across the term “basis points” or BPS. It’s a common term used in the industry, but many people still don’t fully understand what it means. In this article, we’ll break down what basis points are and how they’re used.

## What are Basis Points?

Basis points are a unit of measurement that’s often used in finance to describe changes in interest rates, yields, and other financial metrics. One basis point is equal to 0.01%, or one hundredth of a percent. For example, if a bond’s yield changes by 50 basis points, that means it has changed by 0.50%.

## Why are Basis Points Used?

Basis points are used because they provide a more precise way to describe changes in financial metrics. When dealing with large numbers, even small percentage changes can have a significant impact. Basis points allow for finer granularity in reporting and analysis.

## How are Basis Points Calculated?

Calculating basis points is straightforward. You simply take the percentage change and multiply it by 100. For example, if the yield on a bond increases from 2.5% to 2.75%, the change is 0.25%, or 25 basis points.

## Examples of Basis Points in Action

Basis points are used in a variety of financial contexts. Here are a few examples:

### Interest Rates

When the Federal Reserve raises or lowers interest rates, it’s often reported in terms of basis points. For example, if the Fed raises rates by 25 basis points, that means it has increased rates by 0.25%.

### Bond Yields

Basis points are commonly used to describe changes in bond yields. For example, if a bond’s yield increases from 3.5% to 3.75%, that’s a change of 25 basis points.

### Spread

The spread is the difference between two interest rates or yields. For example, the spread between the 10-year Treasury bond yield and the 2-year Treasury bond yield is often reported in terms of basis points.

## Why Basis Points Matter

Basis points are important because they provide a more precise way to describe changes in financial metrics. They also allow for easier comparison between different investments or financial products. For example, if two bonds have different yields, you can compare them more easily by looking at the difference in basis points.

## Common Misconceptions about Basis Points

There are a few misconceptions about basis points that are worth addressing:

### Basis Points are the Same as Percentage Points

While basis points and percentage points both describe changes in percentages, they are not the same thing. One percentage point is equal to 100 basis points.

### Basis Points are Only Relevant to Professionals

While basis points are a common term used in finance, they are relevant to anyone who is investing or working with financial products. Understanding basis points can help you make more informed decisions when it comes to your investments.

### Basis Points are Always Positive

Basis points can be positive or negative, depending on whether the metric in question is increasing or decreasing. For example, if a bond’s yield decreases from 4% to 3.5%, that’s a change of -50 basis points.

## Conclusion

Basis points are a useful tool for measuring changes in financial metrics. They provide a more precise way to describe percentage changes and allow for easier comparison between different investments or financial products. Whether you’re a professional investor or just getting started, understanding basis points is an important part of financial literacy.