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Class of computer bugs related to dates start in the year 2000

yr 2000 problem, also known as the
Y2K problem,
Y2K scare,
millennium problems,
Y2K bug,
Y2K glitch,
Y2K error, or simply
refers to potential figurer errors related to the formatting and storage of calendar information for dates in and after the year 2000. Many programs represented four-digit years with only the last ii digits, making the twelvemonth 2000 indistinguishable from 1900. Computer systems’ inability to distinguish dates correctly had the potential to bring downwardly worldwide infrastructures for industries ranging from banking to air travel.

In the years leading upwards to the turn of the century, the public gradually became aware of the “Y2K scare”, and individual companies predicted the global damage caused by the bug would crave annihilation between $400 meg and $600 billion to rectify.[i]
A lack of clarity regarding the potential dangers of the bug led some to stock upwardly on food, water, and arms, buy backup generators, and withdraw large sums of money in anticipation of a computer-induced apocalypse.[two]

Contrary to public expectations, few major errors actually occurred in 2000. Supporters of the Y2K remediation effort argued that this was primarily due to the pre-emptive activeness of many computer programmers and data engineering science experts. Companies and organizations in some countries, but non all, had checked, fixed, and upgraded their computer systems to accost the problem.[3]
And then-U.S. president Neb Clinton, who organized efforts to minimize the damage in the United States, labeled Y2K equally “the first claiming of the 21st century successfully met”,[5]
and retrospectives on the result typically commend the programmers who worked to avert the anticipated disaster.

Critics pointed out that fifty-fifty in countries where very little had been done to fix software, issues were minimal. The aforementioned was truthful in sectors such equally schools and small businesses where compliance with Y2K policies was patchy at all-time.



Y2K is a numeronym and was the common abridgement for the twelvemonth 2000 software problem. The abbreviation combines the letter
for “twelvemonth”, the number 2 and a capitalized version of
for the SI unit prefix kilo meaning k; hence,
signifies 2000. It was as well named the “millennium bug” considering it was associated with the pop (rather than literal) rollover of the millennium, even though most of the bug could take occurred at the stop of

s 1993 three-page “Doomsday 2000” article by Peter de Jager was called “the information-age equivalent of the midnight ride of Paul Revere” by
The New York Times.[6]

The trouble was the subject field of the early book
Computers in Crunch
by Jerome and Marilyn Murray (Petrocelli, 1984; reissued by McGraw-Hill nether the title
The Year 2000 Computing Crisis
in 1996). Its get-go recorded mention on a Usenet newsgroup is from 18 January 1985 by Spencer Bolles.[nine]

The acronym Y2K has been attributed to Massachusetts programmer David Eddy[x]
in an email sent on 12 June 1995. He later said, “People were calling it CDC (Century Date Change), FADL (Faulty Date Logic). There were other contenders. Y2K but came off my fingertips.”[eleven]

The trouble started because on both mainframe computers and later personal computers, storage was expensive, from every bit depression as $10 per kilobyte, to in many cases every bit much as or even more than US$100 per kilobyte.[12]
It was therefore very important for programmers to minimize usage. Since computers only gained wide usage in the 20th century, programs could simply prefix “19” to the year of a date, allowing them to only store the final two digits of the year instead of four. As space on disc and tape was also expensive, these strategies saved coin by reducing the size of stored data files and databases in exchange for becoming unusable by the year 2000.[13]

This meant that programs facing two-digit years could not distinguish between dates in 1900 and 2000. Dire warnings at times were in the way of:

The Y2K problem is the electronic equivalent of the El Niño and there volition exist nasty surprises around the globe.

— John Hamre, United States Deputy Secretary of Defence force[14]

Options on the De Jager Year 2000 Index, “the first index enabling investors to manage risk associated with the … computer problem linked to the year 2000” began trading mid-March 1997.[15]

Special committees were set up up by governments to monitor remedial work and contingency planning, particularly by crucial infrastructures such as telecommunications, utilities and the like, to ensure that the almost disquisitional services had stock-still their ain bug and were prepared for problems with others. While some commentators and experts argued that the coverage of the problem largely amounted to scaremongering,[16]
information technology was only the safe passing of the principal issue itself, i January 2000, that fully quelled public fears.

Some experts who argued that scaremongering was occurring, such equally Ross Anderson, professor of security engineering at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, have since claimed that despite sending out hundreds of printing releases most research results suggesting that the problem was not probable to be equally big as some had suggested, they were largely ignored by the media.[16]
In a similar vein, the Microsoft Press book
Running Part 2000 Professional person, published in May 1999, accurately predicted that nigh personal calculator hardware and software would be unaffected by the yr 2000 problem.[17]
Authors Michael Halvorson and Michael Young characterized near of the worries equally pop hysteria, an opinion echoed by Microsoft Corp.[eighteen]

Programming problem


The practice of using ii-digit dates for convenience predates computers, simply was never a problem until stored dates were used in calculations.

Bit conservation need


I’yard i of the culprits who created this problem. I used to write those programs back in the 1960s and 1970s, and was proud of the fact that I was able to squeeze a few elements of space out of my program by not having to put a 19 before the year. Back then, it was very of import. We used to spend a lot of time running through various mathematical exercises before we started to write our programs so that they could be very clearly delimited with respect to space and the use of capacity. Information technology never entered our minds that those programs would have lasted for more than a few years. As a consequence, they are very poorly documented. If I were to go back and look at some of the programs I wrote thirty years ago, I would have one terribly difficult time working my fashion through step-by-step.

—Alan Greenspan, 1998[nineteen]

Business data processing was done using unit record equipment and punched cards, nearly usually the 80-column variety employed by IBM, which dominated the industry. Many tricks were used to clasp needed data into fixed-field fourscore-character records. Saving 2 digits for every date field was significant in this effort.

In the 1960s, computer retentivity and mass storage were scarce and expensive. Early cadre memory cost one dollar per bit. Pop commercial computers, such as the IBM 1401, shipped with equally lilliputian every bit two kilobytes of retentivity.[a]
Programs often mimicked card processing techniques. Commercial programming languages of the fourth dimension, such as COBOL and RPG, processed numbers in their character representations. Over time, the punched cards were converted to magnetic tape and so disc files, but the structure of the information commonly changed very little.

Data was still input using punched cards until the mid-1970s. Machine architectures, programming languages and awarding designs were evolving rapidly. Neither managers nor programmers of that time expected their programs to remain in use for many decades, and the possibility that these programs would both remain in use and cause problems when interacting with databases – a new blazon of program with different characteristics – went largely uncommented upon.

Early attention


The commencement person known to publicly address this upshot was Bob Bemer, who had noticed it in 1958 as a result of work on genealogical software. He spent the next twenty years trying to make programmers, IBM, the regime of the Usa and the International Arrangement for Standardization aware of the trouble, with fiddling effect. This included the recommendation that the COBOL picture clause should exist used to specify 4 digit years for dates.[21]

In the 1980s, the brokerage industry began to address this issue, more often than not because of bonds with maturity dates beyond the year 2000. By 1987 the New York Stock Exchange had reportedly spent over $20 meg, including “a team of 100” programmers on Y2K.[22]

Despite magazine manufactures on the bailiwick from 1970 onward, the majority of programmers and managers only started recognising Y2K as a looming problem in the mid-1990s, just even and then, inertia and complacency acquired it to be mostly unresolved until the last few years of the decade. In 1989, Erik Naggum was instrumental in ensuring that net mail used 4 digit representations of years past including a stiff recommendation to this consequence in the internet host requirements certificate RFC 1123.[23]
On April Fools’ Solar day of 1998, some companies fix their mainframe computer dates to 2001, then that “the wrong engagement will be perceived equally practiced fun instead of bad computing” while having a total mean solar day of testing.[24]

While using three digit years and iii digit dates within that year was used by some, others chose to use the number of days since a stock-still engagement, such as 1 Jan 1900.[25]
Inaction was not an option, and risked major failure. Embedded systems with similar date logic were expected to malfunction and cause utilities and other crucial infrastructure to fail.

Saving space on stored dates persisted into the Unix era, with most systems representing dates to a unmarried 32-bit discussion, typically representing dates equally elapsed seconds from some stock-still date, which causes the like Y2K38 trouble.

Resulting bugs from date programming


Webpage screenshots showing the JavaScript .getYear() method problem, which depicts the year 2000 problem

Storage of a combined date and time within a fixed binary field is oftentimes considered a solution, but the possibility for software to misinterpret dates remains considering such engagement and time representations must be relative to some known origin. Rollover of such systems is still a problem but can happen at varying dates and can neglect in various means. For case:

  • An upscale grocer’s 1997 credit-card acquired crash of their 10 cash registers, repeatedly, due to year 2000 expiration dates, and was the source of the start Y2K-related lawsuit.[26]
  • The Microsoft Excel spreadsheet program had a very elementary Y2K problem: Excel (in both Windows and Mac versions, when they are fix to commencement at 1900) incorrectly set the yr 1900 every bit a jump year for compatibility with Lotus 1-two-3.[27]
    In improver, the years 2100, 2200, and and so on, were regarded as leap years. This problems was fixed in later versions, simply since the epoch of the Excel timestamp was prepare to the meaningless date of 0 January 1900 in previous versions, the year 1900 is still regarded as a jump year to maintain backward compatibility.
  • In the C programming language, the standard library function to extract the year from a timestamp returns the year minus 1900. Many programs using functions from C, such equally Perl and Java, 2 programming languages widely used in web development, incorrectly treated this value as the last two digits of the year. On the spider web this was usually a harmless presentation bug, but it did crusade many dynamically generated web pages to display 1 Jan 2000 as “1/ane/19100”, “ane/1/100”, or other variants, depending on the display format.[
    citation needed
  • JavaScript was changed due to concerns over the Y2K bug, and the return value for years changed and thus differed betwixt versions from sometimes being a four digit representation and sometimes a two-digit representation forcing programmers to rewrite already working code to make sure web pages worked for all versions.[28]
  • Older applications written for the commonly used UNIX Source Code Control System failed to handle years that began with the digit “two”.
  • In the Windows 3.x file manager, dates displayed as 1/ane/19:0 for 1/1/2000 (because the colon is the character later “9” in the ASCII character set). An update was bachelor.
  • Some software, such equally Math Blaster Episode I: In Search of Spot which only treats years every bit two-digit values instead of iv, will give a given year as “1900”, “1901”, and then on, depending on the last 2 digits of the present year.

Similar date bugs


4 January 1975


The date of iv January 1975 overflowed the 12-bit field that had been used in the Decsystem 10 operating systems. In that location were numerous problems and crashes related to this bug while an culling format was developed.[30]

9 September 1999


Even before 1 January 2000 arrived, there were as well some worries about 9 September 1999 (albeit less than those generated by Y2K). Because this date could too exist written in the numeric format 9/9/99, it could have conflicted with the date value
9999, frequently used to specify an unknown date. Information technology was thus possible that database programs might act on the records containing unknown dates on that day. Data entry operators unremarkably entered 9999 into required fields for an unknown future date, (e.m., a termination date for cable television or phone service), in lodge to process calculator forms using CICS software.[31]
Somewhat similar to this is the end-of-file code
9999, used in older programming languages. While fears arose that some programs might unexpectedly stop on that date, the problems was more than likely to misfile computer operators than machines.

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Jump years


Normally, a year is a spring year if it is evenly divisible by four. A year divisible past 100 is not a bound year in the Gregorian calendar unless information technology is besides divisible by 400. For example, 1600 was a leap twelvemonth, but 1700, 1800 and 1900 were non. Some programs may have relied on the oversimplified rule that “a year divisible by 4 is a leap twelvemonth”. This method works fine for the twelvemonth 2000 (considering it is a leap year), and volition not become a problem until 2100, when older legacy programs will likely accept long since been replaced. Other programs contained incorrect leap yr logic, bold for instance that no year divisible by 100 could be a leap yr. An assessment of this
leap yr problem
including a number of real-life code fragments appeared in 1998.[32]
For information on why century years are treated differently, see Gregorian calendar.

Year 2010 problem


Some systems had problems in one case the yr rolled over to 2010. This was dubbed by some in the media as the “Y2K+x” or “Y2.01K” problem.[33]

The main source of issues was confusion between hexadecimal number encoding and binary-coded decimal encodings of numbers. Both hexadecimal and BCD encode the numbers 0–9 as 0x0–0x9. BCD encodes the number 10 as 0x10, while hexadecimal encodes the number 10 every bit 0x0A; 0x10 interpreted as a hexadecimal encoding represents the number xvi.

For example, because the SMS protocol uses BCD for dates, some mobile phone software incorrectly reported dates of SMSes as 2016 instead of 2010. Windows Mobile is the first software reported to have been afflicted by this glitch; in some cases WM6 changes the date of any incoming SMS message sent afterwards one Jan 2010 from the year 2010 to 2016.[34]

Other systems affected include EFTPOS terminals,[36]
and the PlayStation 3 (except the Slim model).[37]

The virtually important occurrences of such a glitch were in Germany, where upward to xx million banking concern cards became unusable, and with Citibank Belgium, whose digipass customer identification chips failed.[38]

Year 2022 problem


Known as the Y2K22 bug. The maximum value of a signed 32-bit integer, as used in many estimator systems, is 2147483647. Systems using an integer to stand for a ten character date-based field, where the leftmost ii characters are the 2-digit yr, ran into an issue on 1 Jan 2022 when the leftmost characters needed to exist ’22’, i.e. values from 2200000001 needed to be represented.

Microsoft’southward Exchange server was ane of the nigh famous and meaning systems affected past the Y22 issues. The problem caused emails to exist stuck on send queues on Substitution Server 2016 and Substitution Server 2019, reporting the post-obit error: “The FIP-FS “Microsoft” Scan Engine failed to load. PID: 23092, Error Lawmaking: 0x80004005. Error Clarification: Can’t convert “2201010001” to long.”

Year 2038 problem


Many systems use Unix fourth dimension and store it in a signed 32-bit integer. This information type is merely capable of representing integers between −(231) and (231)−i, treated equally number of seconds since the epoch at 1 Jan 1970 at 00:00:00 UTC. These systems tin can only represent times betwixt 13 December 1901 at 20:45:52 UTC and 19 January 2038 at 03:14:07 UTC. If these systems are not fixed, they volition carry like it is the year 1901 beginning at 03:14:08 UTC on 19 January 2038.

Programming solutions


Several very different approaches were used to solve the year 2000 problem in legacy systems. Six of them follow:

Date expansion
2-digit years were expanded to include the century (becoming four-digit years) in programs, files, and databases. This was considered the “purest” solution, resulting in unambiguous dates that are permanent and easy to maintain. This method was costly, requiring massive testing and conversion efforts, and usually affecting entire systems.
Appointment windowing
2-digit years were retained, and programs adamant the century value merely when needed for particular functions, such as date comparisons and calculations. (The century “window” refers to the 100-year catamenia to which a engagement belongs.) This technique, which required installing pocket-size patches of code into programs, was simpler to test and implement than appointment expansion, thus much less plush. While not a permanent solution, windowing fixes were usually designed to work for many decades. This was idea adequate, as older legacy systems tend to eventually get replaced by newer technology.[forty]
Date compression
Dates can be compressed into binary 14-bit numbers. This allows retention of data structure alignment, using an integer value for years. Such a scheme is capable of representing 16384 different years; the verbal scheme varies by the selection of epoch.
Date re-segmentation
In legacy databases whose size could not be economically inverse, six-digit year/month/day codes were converted to three-digit years (with 1999 represented as 099 and 2001 represented as 101, etc.) and three-digit days (ordinal date in year). Simply input and output instructions for the date fields had to be modified, but near other date operations and whole record operations required no change. This delays the eventual coil-over problem to the finish of the yr 2899.
Software kits
Software kits, such as those listed in’southward
Superlative 10 Y2K fixes for your PC:[41]
(“nearly … gratuitous”) which was topped by the $50
Millennium Bug Kit.[42]
Bridge programs
Date servers where Call statements are used to access, add or update date fields.[44]

Documented errors


Before 2000


  • On ane Jan 1999, taxi meters in Singapore stopped working, while in Sweden, incorrect taxi fares were given.[47]
  • On 28 December 1999, 10,000 card swipe machines issued by HSBC and manufactured by Racal stopped processing credit and debit card transactions.[16]
    The stores relied on paper transactions until the machines started working again on 1 Jan.[48]

On 1 January 2000


When i January 2000 arrived, there were problems generally regarded as minor.[49]
Consequences did not always result exactly at midnight. Some programs were not active at that moment and problems would only prove upward when they were invoked. Non all bug recorded were directly linked to Y2K programming in a causality; minor technological glitches occur on a regular ground.

Reported bug include:

  • In Australia, bus ticket validation machines in two states failed to operate.[49]
  • In Ishikawa, Nippon, radiation monitoring equipment failed at midnight. Officials said at that place was no take chances to the public.[50]
  • In Onagawa, Nippon, an alarm sounded at a nuclear power constitute at two minutes after midnight.[fifty]
  • In Japan, at ii minutes past midnight, the telecommunications carrier Osaka Media Port found errors in the engagement management part of the company’s network. The problem was fixed by 02:43 and no services were disrupted.[51]
  • In Nippon, NTT Mobile Communications Network (NTT Docomo), Nippon’due south largest cellular operator, reported that some models of mobile telephones were deleting new letters received, rather than the older messages, as the memory filled up.[51]
  • In France, the national weather forecasting service, Météo-French republic, said a Y2K bug made the appointment on a webpage bear witness a map with Saturday’s conditions forecast as “01/01/19100”.[49]
  • In Sheffield, U.k., a Y2K bug acquired miscalculation of the mothers’ age and sent wrong gamble assessments for Down syndrome to 154 pregnant women. As a direct result 2 abortions were carried out, and iv babies with Down syndrome were also born to mothers who had been told they were in the low-take a chance group.[52]
  • In the U.s.a., the US Naval Observatory, which runs the master clock that keeps the country’south official time, gave the appointment on its website as 1 Jan 19100.[53]
  • In the The states, as a direct result of the Y2K glitch, at midnight computers at a ground control station ceased processing information from an unspecified number of spy satellites. The military machine implemented a contingency program by 03:00 am, and restored all normal functionality in approximately two days.[54]
  • In the United States, 150 Delaware Lottery racino slot machines stopped working.[49]

After January 2000


On 1 March 2000


Bug were reported on ane March 2000, which followed Y2K’south start Leap Yr Day,[55]
only these were mostly minor.[56]

  • In Nippon, around five percent of post office greenbacks dispensers failed to work and data from weather condition bureau computers was corrupted.
  • In Bulgaria, police documents were issued with expiration dates of 29 February 2005 and 29 February 2010 (which are non leap years) and the organization defaulted to 1900.[57]
  • In the United States, the Coast Baby-sit’s message processing system was affected.
  • At Reagan National Airport, cheque-in lines lengthened after baggage handling programs were affected.
  • At Offutt Air Force Base south of Omaha, Nebraska, records of shipping maintenance parts could not exist accessed.

On 31 December 2000 or 1 January 2001


Some software did not correctly recognise 2000 as a bound year, and so worked on the basis of the yr having 365 days. On the last day of 2000 (twenty-four hours 366) these systems exhibited various errors. These were generally pocket-sized.

  • In Kingdom of norway, some trains were delayed until their clocks were put dorsum past a month.[58]
  • A “Y2K-like bug” affected a New York Metropolis authorities wireless system that was downward for x days because of a GPS system’due south date-rollover trouble.[59]
    Infrastructure affected included “traffic lights, license-plate readers used by cops and other cardinal functions.”

Since 2000


Since 2000, diverse issues accept occurred due to errors involving overflows. An upshot with time tagging caused the devastation of the NASA
Deep Bear upon

Some software used a process chosen appointment windowing to prepare the consequence by interpreting years 00-19 as 2000-2019 and xx-99 equally 1920–1999. Every bit a result, a new moving ridge of problems started appearing in 2020, including parking meters in New York Urban center refusing to accept credit cards, issues with Novitus point of sale units, and some utility companies printing bills list the year 1920.[62]

Government responses


Republic of bulgaria


Although only two digits are allocated for the birth twelvemonth in the Bulgarian national identification number, the year 1900 problem and later on the Y2K problem were addressed by the apply of unused values above 12 in the month range. For all persons born before 1900, the month is stored as the agenda month plus 20, and for all persons born in or after 2000, the calendar month is stored equally the calendar calendar month plus 40.[63]



Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien’s most important chiffonier ministers were ordered to remain in the uppercase Ottawa, and gathered at 24 Sussex Drive, the prime number minister’s residence, to watch the clock.[six]
13,000 Canadian troops were also put on standby.[vi]



The Dutch Government promoted Y2K Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISACs) to share readiness betwixt industries, without threat of antitrust violations or liability based on information shared.[
commendation needed

Kingdom of norway and Finland


Norway and Finland changed their national identification number, to signal the century in which a person was built-in. In both countries, the nascency year was historically indicated past two digits only. This numbering system had already given rise to a similar problem, the “Year 1900 problem”, which arose due to bug distinguishing betwixt people born in the 20th and 19th centuries. Y2K fears drew attending to an older issue, while prompting a solution to a new problem. In Finland, the trouble was solved by replacing the hyphen (“-“) in the number with the letter “A” for people born in the 21st century (for people built-in before 1900, the sign was already “+”).[64]
In Norway, the range of the individual numbers post-obit the nascence date was altered from 0–499 to 500–999.[
citation needed



Romania also inverse its national identification number in response to the Y2K trouble, due to the birth yr existence represented past only two digits. Before 2000, the first digit, which shows the person’s gender, was 1 for males and two for females. Starting from one January 2000, the Romanaian national identification number starts with 5 for males and half dozen for females.[
citation needed

Republic of uganda


The Ugandan government responded to the Y2K threat by setting up a Y2K Task Force.[65]
In August 1999 an independent international assessment by the World Bank International Y2k Cooperation Centre found that Uganda’s website was in the height category as “highly informative”. This put Uganda in the “top 20” out of 107 national governments, and on a par with the The states, United Kingdom, Canada, Commonwealth of australia and Japan, and ahead of Frg, Italia, Austria, Switzerland which were rated every bit just “somewhat informative”. The report said that “Countries which disclose more Y2K information volition exist more probable to maintain public conviction in their own countries and in the international markets.”[66]

United States


In 1998, the U.s.a. government responded to the Y2K threat by passing the Year 2000 Data and Readiness Disclosure Act, past working with private sector counterparts in order to ensure readiness, and by creating internal continuity of operations plans in the event of bug and set limits to certain potential liabilities of companies with respect to disclosures nigh their year 2000 program.[67]
The endeavor was coordinated by the President’southward Quango on Year 2000 Conversion, headed by John Koskinen, in coordination with the so-independent Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and an acting Critical Infrastructure Protection Group, and so in the Section of Justice, now in Homeland Security.[69]

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The US government followed a three-role approach to the problem: (i) outreach and advocacy, (2) monitoring and cess, and (3) contingency planning and regulation.[71]

The logo created by The President’s Council on the Twelvemonth 2000 Conversion, for employ on

A characteristic of US government outreach was Y2K websites including Y2K.GOV, many of which have become inaccessible in the years since 2000. Some of these websites accept been archived by the National Archives and Records Assistants or the Wayback Car.[72]

Each federal agency had its ain Y2K task forcefulness which worked with its private sector counterparts; the FCC had the FCC Year 2000 Task Forcefulness.[71]

Almost industries had contingency plans that relied upon the internet for backup communications. As no federal bureau had clear authority with regard to the cyberspace at this time (it had passed from the US Department of Defense to the Us National Science Foundation and and so to the U.s. Department of Commerce), no agency was assessing the readiness of the net itself. Therefore, on 30 July 1999, the White House held the White House Internet Y2K Roundtable.[75]

The U.S. government also established the Center for Year 2000 Strategic Stability equally a joint operation with the Russian Federation. Information technology was a liaison operation designed to mitigate the possibility of false positive readings in each nation’s nuclear set on early warning systems.[76]

A CD marking its software as Y2K Complaint

Juno Net Service Provider CD labeling Y2K-compliance

International cooperation


The International Y2K Cooperation Center (IY2KCC) was established at the bidding of national Y2K coordinators from over 120 countries when they met at the First Global Meeting of National Y2K Coordinators at the United Nations in December 1998.[77]
IY2KCC established an office in Washington, D.C. in March 1999. Funding was provided by the World Bank, and Bruce W. McConnell was appointed equally managing director.

IY2KCC’s mission was to “promote increased strategic cooperation and activity among governments, peoples, and the private sector to minimize adverse Y2K effects on the global lodge and economic system.” Activities of IY2KCC were conducted in six areas:

  • National Readiness: Promoting Y2K programs worldwide
  • Regional Cooperation: Promoting and supporting co-ordination inside defined geographic areas
  • Sector Cooperation: Promoting and supporting co-ordination within and across defined economical sectors
  • Continuity and Response Cooperation: Promoting and supporting co-ordination to ensure essential services and provisions for emergency response
  • Information Cooperation: Promoting and supporting international information sharing and publicity
  • Facilitation and Assist: Organizing global meetings of Y2K coordinators and to place resources

IY2KCC closed downwards in March 2000.[77]

Private sector response


A Best Buy sticker from 1999 recommending that their customers turn off their computers ahead of midnight

  • The United states established the
    Year 2000 Data and Readiness Disclosure Human activity, which limited the liability of businesses who had properly disclosed their Y2K readiness.
  • Insurance companies sold insurance policies covering failure of businesses due to Y2K problems.
  • Attorneys organised and mobilised for Y2K course action lawsuits (which were not pursued).[78]
  • Survivalist-related businesses (gun dealers, surplus and sporting appurtenances) anticipated increased business in the last months of 1999 in an event known as the
    Y2K scare.[79]
  • The Long Now Foundation, which (in their words) “seeks to promote ‘slower/better’ thinking and to foster creativity in the framework of the next 10,000 years”, has a policy of anticipating the Twelvemonth 10,000 problem by writing all years with five digits. For instance, they list “01996” as their year of founding.
  • While there was no one comprehensive internet Y2K attempt, multiple internet trade associations and organisations banded together to class the Internet Year 2000 Campaign.[lxxx]
    This endeavor partnered with the White Firm’s Internet Y2K Roundtable.

The Y2K issue was a major topic of discussion in the belatedly 1990s and as such showed up in most popular media. A number of “Y2K disaster” books were published such every bit
Borderline Y2K
by Mark Joseph. Movies such as
Y2K: Year to Kill
capitalised on the currency of Y2K, every bit did numerous Television set shows, comic strips, and computer games.

Fringe grouping responses


A variety of fringe groups and individuals such as those inside some fundamentalist religious organizations, survivalists, cults, anti-social movements, self-sufficiency enthusiasts, communes and those attracted to conspiracy theories, embraced Y2K as a tool to engender fright and provide a form of prove for their respective theories. End-of-the-globe scenarios and apocalyptic themes were mutual in their communication.

Involvement in the survivalist movement peaked in 1999 in its second wave for that decade, triggered past Y2K fears. In the time before all-encompassing efforts were made to rewrite reckoner programming codes to mitigate the possible impacts, some writers such every bit Gary Due north, Ed Yourdon, James Howard Kunstler,[81]
and Ed Yardeni anticipated widespread power outages, food and gasoline shortages, and other emergencies. North and others raised the alarm because they thought Y2K code fixes were non being made quickly enough. While a range of authors responded to this wave of business concern, two of the nearly survival-focused texts to emerge were
Boston on Y2K
(1998) by Kenneth Westward. Royce, and Mike Oehler’due south
The Hippy Survival Guide to Y2K.

Y2K was also exploited by some fundamentalist and charismatic Christian leaders throughout the Western world, particularly in North America and Australia.[82]
Their promotion of the perceived risks of Y2K was combined with finish times thinking and apocalyptic prophecies in an attempt to influence followers.[82]
New York Times
reported in late 1999, “The Rev. Jerry Falwell suggested that Y2K would be the confirmation of Christian prophecy — God’s instrument to shake this nation, to apprehensive this nation. The Y2K crunch might incite a worldwide revival that would lead to the rapture of the church. Along with many survivalists, Mr. Falwell advised stocking up on food and guns”.[83]
Adherents in these movements were encouraged to engage in food hoarding, accept lessons in self-sufficiency, and the more extreme elements planned for a total collapse of modern social club. The
Chicago Tribune
reported that some big fundamentalist churches, motivated by Y2K, were the sites for flea market-like sales of paraphernalia designed to help people survive a social club crisis ranging from gold coins to wood-burning stoves.[84]
Betsy Hart, writing for the
Deseret News, reported that a lot of the more extreme evangelicals used Y2K to promote a political agenda in which downfall of the government was a desired effect in order to usher in Christ’s reign. She also noted that, “the cold truth is that preaching chaos is assisting and at-home doesn’t sell many tapes or books”.[85]
These types of fears and conspiracies were described dramatically by New Zealand-based Christian prophetic author and preacher Barry Smith in his publication, “I Spy with my Trivial Center”, where he dedicated a whole affiliate to Y2K.[86]
Some expected, at times through so-chosen prophecies, that Y2K would be the outset of a worldwide Christian revival.[87]

It became clear in the aftermath that leaders of these fringe groups had used fears of apocalyptic outcomes to manipulate followers into dramatic scenes of mass repentance or renewed commitment to their groups, boosted giving of funds and more overt commitment to their respective organizations or churches. The
Baltimore Sunday
noted this in their article, “Apocalypse Now — Y2K spurs fears”, where they reported the increased telephone call for repentance in the populace in society to avert God’s wrath.[88]
Christian leader, Col Stringer, in his commentary has published, “Fear-creating writers sold over 45 million books citing every believable ending from civil state of war, planes dropping from the sky to the end of the civilised world as we know it. Reputable preachers were advocating food storage and a “head for the caves” mentality. No banks failed, no planes crashed, no wars or civil war started. And all the same not one of these prophets of doom has ever apologised for their scare-mongering tactics.”[87]
Some prominent North American Christian ministries and leaders generated huge personal and corporate profits through sales of Y2K preparation kits, generators, survival guides, published prophecies and a broad range of other associated trade. Christian journalist, Rob Boston, has documented this[82]
in his article “Simulated Prophets, Real Profits — Religious Right Leaders’ Wild Predictions of Y2K Disaster Didn’t Come True, But They Fabricated Money Anyway”.



The total cost of the work done in preparation for Y2K[89]
is estimated at[xc]
over U.s.$300 billion ($472 billion as of January 2018, once inflation is taken into account).[91]
IDC calculated that the US spent an estimated $134 billion ($211 billion) preparing for Y2K, and another $13 billion ($20 billion) fixing problems in 2000 and 2001. Worldwide, $308 billion ($485 billion) was estimated to have been spent on Y2K remediation.[93]

Remedial work arrangement


The remedial work was driven by customer demand for solutions.[89]
Software suppliers, mindful of their potential legal liability,[78]
responded with remedial effort. Software subcontractors were required to certify that their software components were complimentary of engagement-related problems, which drove farther work down the supply concatenation.

By 1999, many corporations required their suppliers to certify,[92]
often on their ain variation of a basic form, that all of their software is Y2K compliant.[
commendation needed

Some merely accustomed remedial updates and so signed. Many businesses or even whole countries who spent footling endeavor themselves nonetheless suffered just minor problems.



There are two means to view the events of 2000 from the perspective of its aftermath:

Supporting view


This view holds that the vast bulk of bug were fixed correctly, and the money spent was at least partially justified. The state of affairs was essentially one of preemptive alarm. Those who hold this view claim that the lack of problems at the engagement change reflects the completeness of the project, and that many calculator applications would non have continued to role into the 21st century without correction or remediation.

Expected problems that were not seen by small businesses and modest organisations were prevented by Y2K fixes embedded in routine updates to operating arrangement and utility software[94]
that were applied several years before 31 December 1999.

The extent to which larger industry and regime fixes averted issues that would have more significant impacts had they non been stock-still, were typically not disclosed or widely reported.[95]
unreliable source?

It has been suggested that on 11 September 2001, infrastructure in New York City (including subways, phone service, and fiscal transactions) was able to go along operation because of the redundant networks established in the consequence of Y2K bug impact[96]
and the contingency plans devised by companies.[97]
The terrorist attacks and the following prolonged blackout to lower Manhattan had minimal consequence on global banking systems.[98]
Fill-in systems were activated at diverse locations around the region, many of which had been established to bargain with a possible complete failure of networks in Manhattan’south Fiscal District on 31 Dec 1999.[99]

Opposing view


The contrary view asserts that at that place were no, or very few, critical problems to begin with. This view as well asserts that there would have been only a few minor mistakes and that a “ready on failure” approach would accept been the most efficient and cost-effective way to solve these issues as they occurred.

Countries such as South Korea and Italia invested niggling to goose egg in Y2K remediation,[100]
yet had the same negligible Y2K bug as countries that spent enormous sums of money.[101]

The lack of Y2K-related problems in schools, many of which undertook little or no remediation try. By one September 1999, merely 28% of United states schools had accomplished compliance for mission critical systems, and a government report predicted that “Y2K failures could very well plague the computers used by schools to manage payrolls, pupil records, online curricula, and building safety systems”.[102]

The lack of Y2K-related problems in an estimated 1.v million small businesses that undertook no remediation endeavour. On 3 January 2000 (the first weekday of the yr), the Small Concern Assistants received an estimated twoscore calls from businesses with computer bug, like to the average. None of the bug were critical.[103]

The absence of Y2K-related bug occurring earlier one January 2000, even though the 2000 fiscal yr commenced in 1999 in many jurisdictions, and a wide range of forward-looking calculations involved dates in 2000 and later on years. Estimates undertaken in the leadup to 2000 suggested that effectually 25% of all issues should take occurred before 2000.[104]
Critics of large-scale remediation argued during 1999 that the absence of meaning reported problems in not-compliant small firms was prove that there had been, and would be, no serious problems needing to be fixed in
firm, and that the scale of the problem had therefore been severely overestimated.[105]

See also


  • 512k day: an consequence in 2014, involving a software limitation in network routers
  • IPv4 address exhaustion, problems acquired by the express allocation size for numeric internet addresses
  • ISO 8601, an international standard for representing dates and times, which mandates the employ of (at least) 4 digits for the year
  • “Life’s a Glitch, Then You Die” is a “Treehouse of Horror segment” from
    The Simpsons
    eleventh season. The segment sees Homer forget to brand his company’s computers Y2K-compliant and this caused a virus to be unleashed upon the world
  • Perpetual agenda, a calendar valid for many years, including before and afterwards 2000
  • Y2K, a 1999 American made-for-television receiver scientific discipline fiction-thriller film directed by Dick Lowry
  • YEAR2000, a configuration setting supported past some versions of DR-DOS to overcome Year 2000 BIOS bugs
  • Millennium celebrations, a worldwide, coordinated series of events to celebrate and commemorate the cease of 1999 and the offset of the year 2000 in the Gregorian agenda.
Baca juga:  Stochstic Calculus And Binary Options

Explanatory notes


  1. ^

    The proper name ‘IBM’ 1401 reflected the smallest corporeality of memory: ane,400 characters.[twenty]



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    Uenuma, Francine (2019-12-xxx). “20 Years Afterward, the Y2K Bug Seems Similar a Joke—Because Those Backside the Scenes Took It Seriously”.
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    Eric Andrew-Gee (2019-12-28). “Y2K: The strange, true history of how Canada prepared for an apocalypse that never happened, but changed usa all”.
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    Rose, Ted (1999-12-22). “Who invented Y2K and why did it go so universally popular?”. Retrieved

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External links


  • Center for Y2K and Lodge Records, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Documents activities of Center for Y2K and Guild (based in Washington, D.C.) working with non-profit institutions and foundations to respond to possible societal impacts of the Y2K calculator trouble: helping the poor and vulnerable besides as protecting human wellness and the environs. Records donated by executive director, Norman 50. Dean.
  • International Y2K Cooperation Center Records, 1998–2000, Charles Babbage Plant, University of Minnesota. Collection contains the materials of the International Y2K Cooperation Heart. Includes state reports, news clippings, country questionnaires, country telephone directories, background materials, audio visual materials and papers of Bruce W. McConnell, director of IY2KCC.
  • Preparing for an Apocalypse: Y2K, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. A web exhibit curated past Stephanie H. Crowe
  • BBC: Y2K coverage
  • In The Beginning there Was the Nerd
    – BBC Radio documentary about the history of computers and the millennium bug ten years after using archival recordings.
  • The Surprising Legacy of Y2K
    – Radio documentary past American Public Media, on the history and legacy of the millennium bug five years on.
  • The Yawn of a New Millennium
  • CBC Digital Archives – The Eve of the Millennium
  • How the Britain coped with the millennium bug
  • “Time running out for PCs at big companies”—CNN